Alpha Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid)

  • Nikolaos Papanas & Dan Ziegler (2014) Efficacy of α-lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy, Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 15:18, 2721-2731, DOI: 10.1517/14656566.2014.972935
  • Ziegler D, Low PA, Freeman R, Tritschler H, Vinik AI. Predictors of improvement and progression of diabetic polyneuropathy following treatment with α-lipoic acid for 4 years in the NATHAN 1 trial. J Diabetes Complications. 2016 Mar;30(2):350-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.10.018. Epub 2015 Nov 10. PMID: 26651260.
  • Lee WY, Orestes P, Latham J, Naik AK, Nelson MT, Vitko I, Perez-Reyes E, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Todorovic SM. Molecular mechanisms of lipoic acid modulation of T-type calcium channels in pain pathway. J Neurosci. 2009 Jul 29;29(30):9500-9. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5803-08.2009. PMID: 19641113; PMCID: PMC3073510.
  • Ziegler D, Ametov A, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Gurieva I, Low PA, Munzel U, Yakhno N, Raz I, Novosadova M, Maus J, Samigullin R. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2365-70. doi: 10.2337/dc06-1216. PMID: 17065669.
  • Memeo A, Loiero M. Thioctic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Clin Drug Investig. 2008;28(8):495-500. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200828080-00004. PMID: 18598095.

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)

  • Di Stefano G, Di Lionardo A, Galosi E, Truini A, Cruccu G. Acetyl-L-carnitine in painful peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review. J Pain Res. 2019 Apr 26;12:1341-1351. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S190231. PMID: 31118753; PMCID: PMC6498091.
  • McKay Hart A, Wiberg M, Terenghi G. Pharmacological enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat by systemic acetyl-L-carnitine treatment. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Dec 16;334(3):181-5. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3940(02)00982-5. PMID: 12453625.
  • Fernandez E, Pallini R, Gangitano C, Del Fá A, Sangiacomo CO, Sbriccoli A, Ricoy JR, Rossi GF. Effects of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine and gangliosides on the regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve in rats. Neurol Res. 1989 Mar;11(1):57-62. doi: 10.1080/01616412.1989.11739863. PMID: 2565553.
  • Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A; Acetyl-L-Carnitine Study Group. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94. doi: 10.2337/diacare.28.1.89. PMID: 15616239.


  • Alin Stirban, Monica Negrean, Bernd Stratmann, Thomas Gawlowski, Tina Horstmann, Christian Götting, Knut Kleesiek, Michaela Mueller-Roesel, Theodor Koschinsky, Jaime Uribarri, Helen Vlassara, Diethelm Tschoepe; Benfotiamine Prevents Macro- and Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Following a Meal Rich in Advanced Glycation End Products in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 1 September 2006; 29 (9): 2064–2071.
  • Ovidiu Alin Stirban, Helga Zeller-Stefan, Jochen Schumacher, Wilhelm Gaus, Dan Ziegler, Thomas Schuerholz, Rodica Pop-Busui, Treatment with benfotiamine in patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study over 12 months, Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, Volume 34, Issue 12, 2020, 107757, ISSN 1056-8727,

Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin)

  • Wu F, Xu K, Liu L, Zhang K, Xia L, Zhang M, Teng C, Tong H, He Y, Xue Y, Zhang H, Chen D, Hu A. Vitamin B12 Enhances Nerve Repair and Improves Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibiting ER Stress-Induced Neuron Injury. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Apr 24;10:406. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00406. Erratum in: Front Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 12;12:598335. PMID: 31105562; PMCID: PMC6491933.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Baltrusch S. The Role of Neurotropic B Vitamins in Nerve Regeneration. Biomed Res Int. 2021 Jul 13;2021:9968228. doi: 10.1155/2021/9968228. PMID: 34337067; PMCID: PMC8294980.

Turmeric Root Powder

  • Zhu X, Li Q, Chang R, Yang D, Song Z, Guo Q, Huang C. Curcumin alleviates neuropathic pain by inhibiting p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity-regulated expression of BDNF and cox-2 in a rat model. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 6;9(3):e91303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091303. PMID: 24603592; PMCID: PMC3946321.

Folic Acid

  • Taverner T, Crowe FL, Thomas GN, Gokhale K, Thayakaran R, Nirantharakumar K, Rajabally YA. Circulating Folate Concentrations and Risk of Peripheral Neuropathy and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study in the U.K. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 14;11(10):2443. doi: 10.3390/nu11102443. PMID: 31614995; PMCID: PMC6835340.

Vitamin D

  • Sari A, Akdoğan Altun Z, Arifoglu Karaman C, Bilir Kaya B, Durmus B. Does Vitamin D Affect Diabetic Neuropathic Pain and Balance? J Pain Res. 2020 Jan 16;13:171-179. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S203176. PMID: 32021406; PMCID: PMC6970609.


  • Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;144(7):961-71. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122. PMID: 15711595; PMCID: PMC1576076.

Broccoli Powder (Brassica oleracea)

  • Vornoli A, Vizzarri F, Della Croce CM, Grande T, Palazzo M, Árvay J, Pucci L, Gabriele M, Matteucci M, Paolini M, Longo V, Pozzo L. The hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kavolì® aqueous extract, a mixture of Brassica oleracea leaves, in a rat model of NAFLD. Food Chem Toxicol. 2022 Sep;167:113261. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2022.113261. Epub 2022 Jul 3. PMID: 35787436.

Foods, Toxins & Nerve Issues

  • Zeliger HI. Exposure to lipophilic chemicals as a cause of neurological impairments, neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013 Sep;6(3):103-10. doi: 10.2478/intox-2013-0018. PMID: 24678247; PMCID: PMC3967436.
  • Kharrazian, D., and Vojdani, A. (2017) Correlation between antibodies to bisphenol A, its target enzyme protein disulfide isomerase and antibodies to neuron-specific antigens. J. Appl. Toxicol., 37: 479– 484. doi: 10.1002/jat.3383.
  • Rao DB, Jortner BS, Sills RC. Animal models of peripheral neuropathy due to environmental toxicants. ILAR J. 2014;54(3):315-23. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilt058. PMID: 24615445; PMCID: PMC4158349.
  • Kim K, Song Y, Oh TJ, Choi SH, Jang HC. Association between Iron Intake and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: Significance of Iron Intake and the Ratio between Iron Intake and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 1;12(11):3365. doi: 10.3390/nu12113365. PMID: 33139615; PMCID: PMC7693683.